tn2ae aybt4 et988 63s9a kedhe fenbz 4z9r2 erfh8 8ns8k n4a64 af7er bkzsr ffbfz 3na8z 97ar5 n5yn2 ir6ey ih873 nd7rk se3td ksan8 Specialized Pitch Comp 1X as first bike? |

Specialized Pitch Comp 1X as first bike?

2021.12.03 00:26 ruapirate Specialized Pitch Comp 1X as first bike?

I'm looking at a specialized pitch comp 1x as my first trail mountain bike.
These are the specs.
I'm aware that people recommend buying used at that price point, but I don't have an expert I can rely on to figure out if a bike is in good condition or not, so I'm probably going to buy new.
For 500-1000$, can I do much better than this bike?
Also, can I add a dropper post to this bike?
Thanks.
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2021.12.03 00:26 Last_Essay7026 American WWII propaganda... 2021 Americans advocating burning books with LGBT characters or sex

American WWII propaganda... 2021 Americans advocating burning books with LGBT characters or sex submitted by Last_Essay7026 to agedlikemilk [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 ATX_Gardening This is my 3'x20' Texas winter garden which I built last month - I'm growing 30 cabbages and 13 broccoli plants

This is my 3'x20' Texas winter garden which I built last month - I'm growing 30 cabbages and 13 broccoli plants submitted by ATX_Gardening to SquareFootGardening [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 cyberdog2020 Did anyone else not get paid today?

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2021.12.03 00:26 chiphchopchip Kenneth C. Griffin aka Mayo man. Day 2:

Kenneth C. Griffin aka Mayo man. Day 2: submitted by chiphchopchip to Superstonk [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 OrwellWasRight69 Europe Goes Mad Over Omicron

Europe Goes Mad Over Omicron submitted by OrwellWasRight69 to Lotuseaters_com [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 Lucifer090909 Would you rather have a sequel or prequel for Squid Game?

I personally would rather have a prequel. Where it covers just a random game with no connection to the main characters.
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2021.12.03 00:26 Aerolyze BTK full squad photo

BTK full squad photo submitted by Aerolyze to MobileLegendsGame [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 DamsoNakano [Ace difficulty] US Speed Tour East - Stage 06: Pikes Peak - Saint Louis

Hi mates, is it only me or this race is very difficult in Ace mode:
US Speed Tour East - Stage 06: Pikes Peak - Saint Louis
I have tried to beat it arount 30 times in Ace mode without success, with a lot of different vehicules (gold set). My last chance would be to gather chemist set and try again but to be honnest I still feel this race is very difficult anyway.
What do you think about it ?
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2021.12.03 00:26 savnk What's Up At Ninja Kiwi? - 3rd December, 2021

What's Up At Ninja Kiwi? - 3rd December, 2021
Art by u/7_Kevin_Sevin_11
Hey everyone! It’s Sav and Tarn here this week
What's been going on this week? Battles 2 launched on iOS, Android and Steam this week and we are so excited! We’ve released a few updates already and we also made a change to how XP works and you can see the info on that here.
Bad Egg Race results: 1st: IAmCracked - 1 minute and 29 seconds 2nd: Colt - 1 minute and 31.3 seconds 3rd: YtseJam - 1 minute and 31.7 seconds 4th: Gumball - 1 minute and 31.7 seconds 5th: alittlebear - 1 minute and 31.8 seconds
This weekend's focus: - BTD6 - Pile O' Monkey Money and T3 Insta Monkeys on sale. Ongoing "Bloon Failure" Odyssey, ending Tuesday. Race this weekend. No Boss will be appearing until early next week.
- Bloons Pop - Friday: Merge Monkeys Saturday: Black Bloon Popper Sunday: Green Bloon Popper 3rd Cannister, Great Pack and Vault of Monkey Money on sale.
- BTD Battles - Professor Evil appearing this weekend on Mine. With a second tougher one on Shallow River starting Tuesday and ending Thursday. Friday: MOAB, MOAB R3 Speed - BFB, BFB Boosts Only, BFB Card Saturday: MOAB, MOAB Card Club - BFB, BFB Club, BFB Card Sunday: MOAB Random 15, MOAB R3 Speed - BFB Boost Only, BFB, BFB Card Monday: MOAB, 2x Medallions with Club Access on sale.
- BATTD - Ongoing Martian games: Shuffle, more regrow and fast regrow. Monkeys only, no allies and more shields starting on Sunday. Sai Adventure Pack, Dungeon Finn and Character Bundle pack on sale.
- SAS4 Mobile - LMS on Friday, Apoc with black box as rewards on Saturday and VS on Sunday. Sales on nantos, NV vet pack, epic pack and 9th premium gun set: Contagion, Ahab and Calamity
- BTD5 - Ongoing Bloon Hunt, ending Sunday. Green counting for the leaderboards. Wizard skin and Monkey Money on sale.
Questions from the comments: What's stopping Psi from popping a Golden bloon? Surely a hero who regularly obliterates MOAB-class bloons would have no issue? Psi’s ways are truly mysterious.
Would a non-monkey hero (like the tack shooters or spike factories) be possible in the future? Possible but unlikely. Heroes have to be packed to overflowing with character.
Since nothing gets past quincy’s bow, why not just leave it on the track so the bloons can’t get past it? Well if it were just lying on the track it wouldn’t be Quincy’s bow then would it? It’d just be “bow on track”.
What's the best tower, and why is it Boomerang? We see what you did there.
What will happen to BTDB1 once BTDB2 is released? Will BTDB1 still receive updates and server running? And are the teams for both games completely separate? BTDB1 will continue to receive support for as long as it makes sense and as long as people play it! We’re definitely still putting time into BTDB1 balance and variety, but most new feature work will shift to BTDB2.
Will holding the send bloon button in mobile BTDB2 also work instead of repeatedly tapping it? Yes!
Why are certain game modes restricted for public co-op? An excellent question… maybe we should do something about that...
large caliber is large, but how large? Larger than normal calibre. Significantly larger than small calibre.
What does Berserker Brew taste like? We’ve heard it’s *demon voice* RAGE INDUCING!!!!
Does the Ray of Doom's chair have a recliner seat, how far back does it go if it does? Dr. Monkey says it’s his patented La-Z-Monkey technology but we’re not sure. Dartling tells us it is like relaxing on a cloud.
Is the Avatar of Wrath a pleasant monkey to be around? There are obvious issues with personality, but what about that lightning aura around it? Would that hurt? Only if you are a Bloon. You wouldn’t want to be a Bloon around AoW but otherwise they are just like super pleasant and polite.
If you could fuse any two heroes together, Dragon Ball Z style, which two would you fuse, and what would their name be? Mine would be Benjienne. You won’t trick us into talking ships that easily my friend!
Do you have any plans to add sas4 flash things such as ice station, meltdown, and bounty event to mobile? it would be nice if it happen. is that all? will there be no more updates for sas 4? I would like to see web-level updates on mobile / steam. The last content update won’t be the last update for SAS4 mobile. But, we do want to set some expectations here. The game is 7 years old, and while we love it, we also do want to develop other things. So this won’t be a return to the heyday of updates but we do want to keep adding cool things to the game. And at the same time, look to build new awesome in the SAS universe.
Why does Bloonarius looks way smaller than Lych? Must be all the Bloons he keeps spewing out
do ice monkeys melt? In summer? You are just trying to get us to start singing Frozen songs again.
Why did "SAS4 web" disappear from the blog weekend's focus information? We cut down the list of things on the list so that it’s easier to see key information.
Is Adora the true sun god's daughter? or just a niece/cousin? We’re not completely sure but we’ve heard their relationship is divine.
Will the Cobra and Bloonchipper be added to BTDB 2? No.
why is the co-op daily challenge always on Cubism? It's a good map
Do you think the monkey buccaneer has pirated anything before? Even if Buccaneer Monkey pirates something, they’d still call it plundering. Mainly to throw off the feds.
Can the hero/tower pets get an update? Just saying that if you could pet them the game would be 10% awesomer. That would be awesome and has been suggested before. Not currently in the plans but you never know! Another idea would be to have some of them as plushies, and then players could actually pet them. Perhaps we should run a poll...
what's the draw strength of Quincy's bow? You’d want at least 19 Str to be able to even think about pulling that string back.
Are smudge(i assume ezilis cat) and pancakes(etns cat) friends? Yes! BTW, Etienne thinks the community missed something in translation. In French the name is Crepe after all.
Have a great weekend and happy gaming!
- Sav and Tarn
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2021.12.03 00:26 VaporXP [Quebec, QC][H] Cash, Paypal [W] 3070, 3080

Hello people, looking for a RTX 3070 or 3080 for my brother's build, I'm starting to lose hope :/, been searching for a long time for a fair priced card to get my brother's computer up and running. Looking for those variants: EVGA FTW3, MSI GAMING X TRIO, ASUS KO, ASUS ROG STRIX, ASUS TUF.
Max budget is 1200$ for the 3070 and 1600-1700$ for the 3080... thanks for reading, have a great one!
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2021.12.03 00:26 mwfreebies 3 FREE Facial Skincare Products & A $50 Amazon Gift Card If Chosen! (must apply)

3 FREE Facial Skincare Products & A $50 Amazon Gift Card If Chosen! (must apply) submitted by mwfreebies to MWFreebies [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 Elusive-Dread Installed new ram and now dram and cpu light are on. (Old ram won’t work either)

Installed new ram and now dram and cpu light are on. (Old ram won’t work either) submitted by Elusive-Dread to 24hoursupport [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 Amynamy Big bear walking along

Big bear walking along submitted by Amynamy to bearsdoinghumanthings [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 sweetygirlmia Does this test means Im pregnant ?

Does this test means Im pregnant ? submitted by sweetygirlmia to pregnancyproblems [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 trynalearnstufff I simply cannot grasp beginner skill

I finished a google course on coursera for data analytics. I learned the basics on everything but i feel like i havent learned a single thing about the actual job itself, or how to start, only technical terms and things like that. I have to do a capstone study, and start a portfolio to do hands on actual work in a dataset but im stuck trying to exactly find out how. I mean, where do i download a data set?? Do i come up with my own problem statement or solve a problem someone else for them in a practice template? If so, where do i even find these resources anyways?
So many confusing methods all coming at me at once, and i feel like im still trying to memorize SQL really. My main issue is i feel i missed key information on exactly "how" to create and share case studies in a portfolio.
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2021.12.03 00:26 FluffyDavid Headphones to fit over hearing aids?

Just looking for recommendations. I do some video editing and music recording and wanted a pair of headphones that are big enough to fit over my Phonak BTE HAs without feedback. Anything work for anyone?
submitted by FluffyDavid to hearing [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 arunavakun "Detective Conan: The Bride of Halloween" film teaser: The film opens in Japan on April 15.

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2021.12.03 00:26 VAYU3594 Tamannaah Bhatia

Tamannaah Bhatia submitted by VAYU3594 to BollywoodHotActress [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 knitslip 主体思想是一种民族主义思想么?

作者:汉之声专用号 链接:https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/440569247 来源:知乎 著作权归作者所有。商业转载请联系作者获得授权,非商业转载请注明出处。
摘要:
关键词:金正日 民族主义 朝鲜 主体思想
朝鲜的唯一指导思想是主体思想,主体思想本身的性质,也就决定了朝鲜的国家性质。金日成所亲自创立的主体思想强调民族自尊,政权独立,反对事大主义,这种主体思想似乎具有高度的民族主义色彩。但实际上朝鲜的主体思想并未改变朝鲜传承自苏联的高度极权的制度,只是改变了效忠对象的指向。因此,朝鲜的主题思想本质上并不是一种民族主义思想,朝鲜也不是任何意义上的“民族主义国家”,仍然是一个典型的殖民体制的国家。
一、金日成的主体思想的创作过程与其内容
1955年,金日成首次明确提出了主体思想。以《关于在思想工作中克服教条主义和形式主义,确立主体》为标题发表的讲话中,金日成表示,“我们党的思想工作的主体是什么?我们正在做什么?我们正在进行朝鲜的革命,而不是别的国家的革命。朝鲜革命,这就是我们党的思想工作的主体。因此,必须使一切思想工作服从朝鲜革命的利益“。【《关于在思想工作中克服教条主义和形式主义,确立主体》,1955年12月28日。《金日成:关于我国革命 的主体》(1),平壤:朝鲜外国文出版社,1975年,第131页。】
主体思想的核心内容即“革命的首脑观”,意思是人民应当接受首脑的指导,首脑是头,党是躯干,人民是手足,躯干和手足应当听从头脑的指挥。意即党与领袖并非一体,党和人民作为“躯干”和“手足”,都要受领袖的领导,成为领袖的下级和工具。结合朝鲜的“领袖”一职始终把持在金日成祖孙三代手中的现实,我们可以指出主体思想的作用和目的所在:主体思想的核心作用和根本目的便是确立金日成和他的子孙对朝鲜劳动党和整个朝鲜社会的绝对统治地位。
除确立领袖的绝对领导地位外,主体思想还包括另一面,即要求朝鲜政权必须在政治和军事上不依附于其他国家。如金日成还坚持认为,“朝鲜民族必须在思想上树立主体,在政治上自主,在经济上自立,在军事上自卫,”,他要求朝鲜的国家经济自给自足、政治军事完全独立,不受外国势力支配甚至影响。联系到主题思想的核心内容,金和主体思想的根本含义,就是朝鲜政权对外不受一切国外力量控制,也不能有任何内部力量在内威胁他家族的统治,他的家族是朝鲜的绝对主人,朝鲜只受他本人的完全绝对统治。
金强调朝鲜政权的“自主”,可能与他的朝鲜政权长期以来依赖苏联和PRC在经济上的巨额无偿援助有关。这些外部支持导致朝鲜政权长期受制于两大临国,并对金日成在劳动党党内的领导地位和在朝鲜国内的绝对权力产生威胁,也让他的政权被视为共产国际扩张的一部分,这导致了朝鲜政权受到其他共产势力的影响,不能实现他完全独占朝鲜统治权的理想。
既然金日成创立主体思想的根本目的,是让金家作为朝鲜唯一的领袖与大脑,(通过劳动党)拥有对朝鲜的绝对统治权和无限的权力。那么他就不能容忍外来势力挑战他的权力。因为在内部阻止他独裁统治威胁既然已经被消除,他统治的威胁只留在了外部,他昔日的盟友或主人可能会试图把它变成匈牙利和波兰式的傀儡国,或者煽动起其内部的反对派(如“苏联派”“延安派”)等。只有让朝鲜政权在军事上和政治上完全独立于外来控制,他才能统治得安稳,他所谓的朝鲜“独立自主”,实际上就是指他的政权和党从共产主义世界中“独立出来”,最高权威从苏共政治局变成他本人而已。
二、金日成是虚构的民族主义者
围绕着主体思想,金日成构建了一整套历史叙事。这些历史叙事无与伦比地强化了朝鲜所谓“独立自主”的政治姿态,强硬地确立了金日成家族作为朝鲜领袖的统治地位,并且把朝鲜的历史解释为朝鲜和周边其他民族尤其是汉族对抗和寻求独立自主的过程,为此不惜把朝鲜历史上绵延五百年的李氏王朝视为民族的耻辱。金日成认为,中、日、俄、美这些大国长期向朝鲜扩张势力,使很多朝鲜人失去了民族自尊心,习惯于依赖别国而生。这种观点也成为了目前朝鲜劳动党政权为诸多困境辩护时最常用的说辞。金的策略是把自己政权在共产主义世界内的独立性,偷换概念说成是朝鲜民族在世界各民族中的独立性,把自己拥有在朝鲜国内不受外来限制的绝对权威、劳动党本身不受共产主义世界限制和朝鲜民族国家的主权独立混为一谈。这不仅是为了给自己利用民族主义和自己独裁提供依据,更是为了把自己“打扮”成民族主义者,把自己利用外来势力夺权与专制独裁,并长期服务于共产主义世界的利益(后来是为自己和其家族个人利益)的历史说成是为了民族独立奋斗,并通过消解朝鲜历史上公认正统王朝合法性(因其政治上不够“独立”)的方式,反过来强化自己的合法性。
金日成通过主体思想把自己塑造成朝鲜民族主义者的代表,并把自己的领袖地位和朝鲜劳动党的独立地位说成是朝鲜民族独立的同义词,但他的论调有两个致命的漏洞。其一,他本人当初是以苏联代理人(“外来势力”)的身份被派到朝鲜进行统治的,所谓为了朝鲜独立的光荣革命历史是苏联和他本人共同编造的谎言。其二,即使日后他从苏联控制下“独立”,他的政权也不过是把效忠对象从苏联和共产主义转向了他本人和劳动党,全盘保留了苏联传来的制度。这套制度不同于威权政体,它通过中央计划的方式剥夺并集中了全民族的财富,摧毁了它以外的所有人的自由,让一个独立的致胜集团和他本人作为一个悬浮于朝鲜民族之上的特权集团进行统治。这套极权制度本身是来自“外界(苏联)输入”的,而不是朝鲜民族自主选择的,这套制度不符合朝鲜民族的利益,也不是朝鲜民族历史上威权君主制的延续(因为李朝君主显然无法无力在全社会建立极权统治)。金在夺权并消除了中苏的影响之后,并没有废除这套制度,而是把这套制度全盘保留,除了把效忠对象指向自己以外并无改变。就好比日本在朝鲜建立了殖民统治,总督府控制了全社会的权力,对朝鲜人实行极权的殖民统治。金就好比他原本是日本派往朝鲜的总督,后来又“推翻”了日本的统治,然后完全保留了日本的制度,那这就绝不能说成是朝鲜民族成功实现了独立,他的统治也和日治时代毫无区别。
如果我们研究历史,会发现金日成从一开始就不是一位民族主义者。沈志华教授基于多方材料——特别是苏联和PRC的档案对朝鲜进行了很多开创性研究,我们可以借助他的研究理清很多历史问题。
金日成在他的说辞中将他所属的游击队称作反抗日本侵略者的最主要力量。但实际上,游击队派起源于东本抗日联军中的朝鲜人部队,一开始受PRC共产党领导,后接受苏联的直接领导。苏联通过种种手段把东北抗联据为己有以后,将抗联改编为东北抗日联军教导旅,该旅、营参谋长及政治部、后勤部、军械处、通讯营、迫击炮连的主官均为苏联军人担任,原抗联官兵全部改换苏联军装、授予苏联军衔。该旅的任务是培养 军事、政治干部,只待环境改变即配合苏军解放全东北。可以说,抗联部队是苏军建制下的一支队伍,很难称得上是任何独立的民族,尤其是朝鲜民族的民族武装,因为该部自身并没有自己的独立性。(48)
金日成本人本身是抗联中的后起之秀。其于1940年10月23日擅自越入苏联境内,本属于机会主义错误,幸而得抗联将领周保中出面才得以解脱。后来金日成在抗联地位中迅速提升,其中还要原因是得到了苏联人的青睐,而其他朝鲜族军官金策和崔石泉等人由于与苏联的矛盾遭到贬斥,与此同时金日成因“在俄语学习方面取得优异成绩”而多次受到表扬。【50】
1945年8月8日苏联向日宣战,9日苏军150万人攻入汉人的东北和毗邻的朝鲜。金日成所在的八十八旅前往朝鲜的一共才113人,其主要任务是帮助苏联占领和管理朝鲜,并建立自己的武装力量。【54】就北朝鲜地区而言,当地最著名的民族主义者当然不是金日成,而是62岁的曹晚植,曹晚植本人生活简朴,性格刚毅,参与过朝鲜历史上几乎所有的大型反日活动,并一直坚守本土进行反日活动和为朝鲜人争取权益,因此其享有极高的威望,在日本退出朝鲜半岛后曹晚植组建了朝鲜民主党,宣扬建立独立的社会民主主义共和国并发展民族工业与文化,甚至主张平均地权,有成为苏占朝鲜最大的政党。苏联人为了设立联合政府,扶持曹晚植为平安南道人民政治委员会委员长。苏联人出于地缘政治的考虑,试图托管北朝鲜,但这遭到了南朝鲜和曹晚植的反对,联合政府的计划因此破产。在联合政府破产之后,莫斯科这才不得不完全扶植金日成。
1945年十月,金日成乘苏联军舰抵达平壤。为了建议和扩充听从莫斯科号令的统一政党,苏联对劳动党大加扶持,使其党员人数在1948年末达到77之万之多,并为朝鲜培训了大量干部和专家,以至于朝鲜宪法和主要法规都是苏联起草的。也是在1948年金日成借苏联的支持建立了朝鲜民主主义人民共和国并担任朝鲜劳动党委员长和国家内阁首相,成为手握党政军三权的领导人。宪法理应代表一国最多数国民的意志,如果连宪法都是外国“钦点”的产物,那北朝鲜一开始就不是一个真正独立的国家。【101】莫斯科对朝鲜影响之大,正如俄国的朝鲜学家所做的判断:“金日成及北朝鲜其他国家领导人唯苏联马首是瞻。”【104】正是认定朝鲜已经完全成为苏联的卫星国,斯大林才把朝鲜移交给了金日成。与此同时,在1950年,金日成开始了清除异己的第一步。曹晚植作为朝鲜民族主义活动家,其本人的政治主张事实上和金日成日后所宣传的有相近之处,但其本人反对共产主义,外加其巨大的影响力,毫无疑问是金日成和他的党在北朝鲜掌权的最大阻碍。自1946年起,其便遭到金日成逮捕拘押,于1950年被杀害。
金日成在谋害李晚植的同时,还在紧锣密鼓地谋划另一项行动。1949年到1950年,他亲赴莫斯科和北京,分别面见两国领袖,请求二人同意朝鲜南下进攻韩国统一朝鲜半岛,并给予自己军事援助。待到二人同意后,1950年当年6月,金日成依仗苏联提供的军事援助才能发动朝鲜战争,一度将韩国方面赶下海。可好景不长,美国方面很快便出手干预,联合国军在汉城和洛东江畔歼灭了朝鲜陆军主力,随后一路北进,金日成的朝鲜政权呈现出危如累卵之势。陷入绝境的金日成多次“恳求”苏联和PRC伸出援手,直到PRC志愿军进入战场才稍微放下紧绷的神经,但此时已丢失大部分筹码的他,也只能起到“看客”的作用。
我们到这里可以得出一个结论,无论你是否支持日后金日成摆脱中苏控制前的政权不是一个民族政权,朝鲜战争以前的朝鲜政权就是主体思想里的真正“傀儡政权”,他本人也是一个不折不扣的外国代理人,按他的标准,是绝非民族政权的。我们现在已经知道,金日成的发迹与“抗日”没有丝毫关系,他能统治朝鲜,完全仰仗于早年在苏联的良好表现和因此获得的青睐,以及时局带给他的一点点小运气罢了,和他本人一直宣扬的所谓“民族主义领袖”身份并无分毫关系。
可是,金日成的主体思想拒不承认上述事实,在朝鲜的历史叙述中和金日成的内部讲话中,苏联和PRC的存在几乎被完全抹去,其他朝鲜半岛的民族主义活动家就更没有露脸的可能了,率领朝鲜人民打败日本、美国和“无耻的南傀”的只有他金日成本人。他的各项举动都是极为不齿的,目的和动机也与民族主义无关,仅仅是为了个人把持权力和塑造政权合法性而已。
讽刺的是,金日成在其主体思想中最反对的事大主义,恰恰是他获取权力的最关键因素。没有他对苏联的侍奉,朝鲜民主主义人民共和国就无法建立,他也无法成为该国政府和执政党的首脑;没有他对PRC的求助和对当时PRC最高领导人的讨好,PRC就不会出兵朝鲜拯救他的政权,也不会给予源源不断的物资、资金扶持;没有两大邻国的援助,朝鲜便无法在20世纪60到70年代展现出欣欣向荣的局面。
正是通过对苏联和PRC和忠诚,金日成获得了他的权力。在获取权力之后,又掩盖整个过程,用虚假的历史把自己塑造为民族英雄,他在朝鲜民主主义人民共和国中近乎神明般的民族领袖地位根本是无本之木,全靠对内的封锁宣传和对外的事大主义与对他国领导人的谄媚来维系,正可谓金玉其外,败絮其中。
当然,考虑到小国的生存现实需求,金日成一开始“事大”,但他日后确实将朝鲜的权力完全掌握在自己手中,消灭了延安派和苏联派,成为了朝鲜的独一无二的领袖。如果他此时能改变苏联治下的制度,恢复朝鲜人的自由到威权统治者水平,那么他就可以成为民族主义者。问题在于,金氏朝鲜为了自身的权力稳固和贪婪,因为恐惧自由的朝鲜民族反对他,一直坚持计划经济和高度极权的体制。伴随着PRC改革开放和苏联崩溃,物资输入断崖式缩水,这种极度依赖外援的虚假繁荣便无以为继,缺乏石油的工业和缺乏化肥的农业都迅速萎缩,民众连果腹这样的基本需求都做不到。可见金日成绝非什么民族主义者,他只不过是一个保留了苏联那套极权制度的统治者罢了,唯一的改变就是把这套制度的效忠对象从苏共改为他本人罢了。也仰仗于这套极权制度,弥留之际的金日成仍能牢牢把控整个朝鲜——哪怕这个朝鲜衰败不堪民生凋敝。
二、金日成为什么要提出主体思想
金日成为了把自己塑造为民族英雄,可以说是不遗余力,任何事情都得为之让步。例如金日成之子金正日出生于苏联的哈巴罗夫斯克,但朝鲜为了营造出自己是根正苗红的伟大的民族英雄家族的形象,对内始终宣传金正日出生于“朝鲜境内的白头山”(PRC长白山),并因此在中朝边境谈判中坚持将本属PRC的长白山主峰划入朝鲜境内。在正常人看来,这一行为既疯狂又难以理解,想要理清其中的逻辑,首先得明白金日成为什么要提出主体思想?
第一,为了垄断朝鲜国内最高权力
要实现对朝鲜的绝对统治,就得先树立在朝鲜国内的绝对权力。因为金是苏联扶持上台的,当时的朝鲜劳动党内,除金日成率领的游击队派之外,还有苏联派和延安派等紧跟苏联的共产主义派系,深受邻国影响的派系,以及本土民族主义和其他与苏联关系不密切的共产主义派系。金日成第一次提出主体思想,就将之用作攻讦苏联派和延安派的武器。他尖锐地批判宣传部门“只说人家的东西好,对我们自己—指劳动党和他本人—的东西却视而不见”的种种错误现象,还直接点名批判了“苏联派”和“延安派”的代表人物许嘉谊、朴一禹等重要领导干部,指责他们围绕朝鲜人民军的政治工作问题,即“从苏联回来的人主张学苏联的方法,从PRC回来的人则主张学PRC的方法”的“无聊的争吵”([1]金成镐.试论朝鲜金日成主体思想的产生及其历史根源[J].延边大学学报(社会科学版),2019,52(05):5-17+140.DOI:10.16154/j.cnki.cn22-1025/c.2019.05.001.)。这是一种很典型的形象塑造方式,通过将自己塑造成本土派的代表、贬斥他人为外国傀儡的手段,把自己标榜为民族主义者,把苏联派和延安派贬斥为外国势力的臣属,从而方便自己排除异己。苏联派和延安派遭到大加诛戮后,金日成便再无掣肘。
第二,为了排除国际干预
对内成为绝对统治者以后,就要排除外界的干预。金日成是依靠苏联和PRC获得和维持权力的,不过他也不愿意成为苏联和PRC的绝对下属,希望独享朝鲜事务的最高权力,而提出一种新思想是非常有利于他名正言顺地反对来自苏联和PRC的干预的。这也是各共产主义国家的统治者借助国际力量获得权力之后,为了排除国际力量对自己的继续干预的常见手段,历史上的胡志明、铁托等人无不和金日成一样,宣称自己根据本民族实际情况创造性地发展了马克思主义,使马克思主义完成了某种程度的民族化、本土化。虽然这些人的做法确实起到了让所在党派尽可能脱离苏联甚至PRC的影响的作用,但对一直坚持绝对的极权统治,畏惧给与朝鲜人民一点经济和政治自由权利的金氏来说,他的这套“独立自主”理论只是欺骗朝鲜民族主义者支持,并利用共产主义阵营对“民族独立”的赞同,用来将朝鲜人忠诚对象转向自己,防止外部势力扶持内部反对派的工具罢了。因为金高度极权的制度导致朝鲜长期以来都依赖外国援助过活,金打着“独立自主”招牌在中苏之间摇摆,伸手乞讨,再用“独立自主”清除其影响。日后又通过同样的手段来骗取美国和西方的援助,无非是同一套把戏。
第三,为了获得意识形态合法性
亚里士多德曾经说过,僭主维持统治的最好方法是将自己伪装为君主。同理,把自己伪装为民族主义者也是非民族主义者维持自己权力的常用手段。社会主义作为一种意识形态毕竟过于复杂,仅有少数人能够理解和信仰,相比之下,民族主义就简洁易懂得多了。民族主义根植于最根本的人性,天生比其他意识形态更具象化、更有感染力,人们或许不清楚什么是党内的异见分子,但很容易辨别谁是民族的叛徒,并对忠于民族的人投去尊重甚至爱戴的目光。因此尽管从民族福祉乃至于施政作为来看,因特纳雄耐尔的国际主义都很难与民族主义扯上关系,把自己塑造成民族主义者、把试图挑战自己权力的人打成民族叛徒仍成为诸多共产主政党用来清除党内异己、打击党外反对者时最常用的手段。具体到金日成身上,体现为此人虽无堪称“民族领袖”的功绩,但通过对外全面的信息封锁和对内不断洗脑式宣传,仍将自己是“民族领袖”的人设植入了朝鲜普罗大众的脑子里,并据此建立起意识形态上的合法性。这一手段业已被他的儿子金正日和孙子金正恩继承,也会伴随朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的国祚一直延续。
虽然金日成政权挥舞着“主题思想”旗号,声嘶力竭地强调自己的“本土”身份,其成员也都是朝鲜人,这个政权本质上仍与金日成先前作为苏联傀儡时期一样,都是与朝鲜人的利益和主张无关的极权政府,只是把效忠对象从共产国际/苏联和斯大林,转为朝鲜劳动党和他本人而已。这种转变倒和殖民者间的“交接班”很像。无论昭和日本再怎么强调自己的“亚洲”、“黄种人”身份,如何高举“驱逐西方殖民者”的旗帜,都不会在意朝鲜人的利益与主张,只会像先前的西方列强那样烧杀抢掠。无论怎么变化,受苦的仍是朝鲜人。无论日本的朝鲜总督府统监是否有朝鲜血统,说朝鲜语,还是干脆就是个朝鲜人,这个高度极权的殖民政权本质上都是殖民政府,除非这个体制瓦解。
三、民族主义者的启示
1、极权与否是鉴别民族主义政权的关键
民族主义者追求的是民族的独立和自由,所谓民族的独立和自由不是抽象的,而是可以具体衡量的。
与任何民族社会相比,本族统治者都是渺小而微不足道的,从民族社会中生成的政权很难形成与社会切割的致胜集团,无法全面控制社会,也就难以建立起极权统治。相反,外族统治者很容易利用自己的外族同胞,形成独立于当地的致胜集团,并据此全面控制社会实现极权统治。满清,奥斯曼帝国,日本帝国治下的朝鲜,汪精卫政府等都是如此的殖民政权。因为它们都靠着外族主子实现了对社会绝对的控制力,并通过统制经济剥夺了全民族的财富,通过文字狱剥夺了全民族的自由,我们评价一个民族是否真正拥有独立与自由,唯一的鉴别标准就是他的统治力量能否建立极权统治,对社会进行全面控制。真正从外族统治中获得独立的民族,他们的成员们必定获得了原本在极权社会中无法享有的自由——包括经济、思想、政治和军事等各个方面。如果在所谓“本土领袖”治下,原有的统治制度毫无变化,该缺失的自由依然缺失,那就可以认为这个统治者实际上仍然维持着殖民统治,只是把凌驾于民族社会之上的异族致胜集团,换成了自己和一小撮人组成的致胜集团罢了,民族社会仍然没有自由与独立可言。
2,由于民族主义的天然合法性和强大号召力,很容易成为极权统治者利用的对象
虚假的民族主义者为了获得和保持权力,往往会将自己装扮为民族主义者,打着“独立自主”的旗号欺骗民族社会,声称只要把异族殖民者赶走由他们统治,其他固有制度尘封不变,就算实现了民族独立。这当然是荒谬的,我们批判此类谎言时应当从自由入手,指出朝鲜人不仅在苏联统治时期没有自由,在金家统治时期也没有获得自由,金家建立的不过是一个没有苏联人的苏联罢了,这个政权根本无法与过往的李朝和南韩相提并论。历史上的李朝虽然没有民主,人民也缺乏政治权利,军事上长期受制于中国或满清,但他不可能也没有能力阻止人民逃荒,也无法把全社会的财富垄断在自己手中,其治下的朝鲜民族社会仍然拥有经济和思想上的自由,因此这仍是一个远好于金家极权政权的正常威权君主政权。金家治下朝鲜社会拥有的自由和独立也远不如他们的邻居南韩。尽管南韩被金家宣传成美国的傀儡,但美国无力全面控制韩国,只能少量控制其政治和军事,对南韩的经济和思想领域完全插不上手,这种控制和威权政府相差不大,可以在某种程度上视作古代强邻在朝鲜扩大影响力的现代版。韩国治下的朝鲜民族社会不仅生活水平更好,还有着充分的自由,可以自由表达自己的意见,自由地反对美国。这当然不是说韩国政权取得了完全的独立,但韩国的朝鲜民族确实“几乎”取得了完全的自由。从自由权利的角度来说,朝鲜治下的民族社会在经济、文化、政治等各个领域全面受控于金家和朝鲜劳动党组成的致胜集团,他们才是被殖民的,且比历史上任何时期都缺乏自由与独立,仅有日据期间的朝鲜总督府统治能与之相提并论。
有的知识分子无法认清金家和麾下的朝鲜劳动党利用苏式极权制度凌驾于民族之上,垄断全社会经济政治资源与思想的“反民族”的本质,反过来批判民族主义的“极端和狂热”,甚至把朝鲜人被奴役的原因归结为因为民族主义自愿追随金家、甘愿放弃个人自由换取民族独立。这不仅有悖事实,无助于朝鲜民族社会获得独立与自由,反而有利于非民族主义者伪装自己。从某种意义上来说,这些知识分子实为极权统治者的帮凶,正是他们“认证”了极权统治者挖空心思编造出的政权=民族的公式,帮助极权统治者把国家和政权等同于民族,把效忠极权统治者和极权制度,与效忠民族挂钩,实际上起到了为极权统治者辩护的作用。
结合金日成的例子不难看出,要想推翻极权统治者,首先得仔细研究历史,跳出极权统治者自创的极权世界线,回归真实的逻辑与历史。顺着极权统治者人为创作的故事和逻辑链亦步亦趋,只会落入陷阱,不知不觉地成为极权统治者的帮凶,进一步巩固其统治。须得去伪存真,穿过极权统治者散布的重重迷雾,拨开他们缠绕在真相身上的层层面纱,触及被深深隐藏的地基级谎言,才能摧毁殖民者的历史叙事,摘下那些伪装成民族主义之人的假面,揭露口口声声“一切为了民族”者是民族最大叛徒的真相。只有这样才能冲击极权统治者的合法性,使民众获得解放,践行民族主义真正的价值。
注释:其中数字是《最后的天朝》页码
限于某些原因,去掉了原文该有的注释。
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2021.12.03 00:26 videogamesthrowaway Yo I thought this was gonna be hard af…I’m happy to say I completed it!!!! I never even get golds yet I finished this today in like 2 hours or maybe 3 I’m hyped!!!

Yo I thought this was gonna be hard af…I’m happy to say I completed it!!!! I never even get golds yet I finished this today in like 2 hours or maybe 3 I’m hyped!!! submitted by videogamesthrowaway to FallGuysGame [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 mystymaples71 Is there a mod for this forum?

Maybe a banner photo would help people distinguish it.
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2021.12.03 00:26 kurtles_ Love my Stradic Ci4!

Love my Stradic Ci4! submitted by kurtles_ to Fishing_Gear [link] [comments]


2021.12.03 00:26 Love_KotoriMinami Quarter memory

You guys how do we obtain the memory USB’s used for extra training?
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2021.12.03 00:26 SkullsandBeauty Am I the victim?

I f-cked up at work, not like a huge major way but I used the cake air brush tool which I forgot I wasn't supposed to use. Last time I used it was months ago. So Wednesday night I used it by mistake and made cupcakes which I forgot was a big no because we save on shipment. My ADD is pretty bad and it happens, I forget. I made two sets of 6 count cupcakes to put up at the case. Didn't use up all the cupcakes at all.
Apparently I forgot to clean out the airbrush nozzle and it leaked into the sink, thank god not on the floor. It started getting busy and usually little sh-t like restocking the condiments slips my mind because it gets a bit hectic at night [I'm the only closer.]
I wake up to my boss slamming me in the group chat...
"Absolutely NO ONE us to use the airbrush unless given permission this was left this way over night which is absolutely UNACCEPTABLE!!"
first off.. I apologized but why the group text? Why didn't she message me privately and told me if I did it again I would be written up? So that kind of pissed me off, but, when I saw her at work her attitude was a bit off with me and I continued to apologize.
Well now... later on I notice I missed a message from her talking about how we cannot use the tools and cupcakes... then another message which really f-cking set me off
"I just sent her that. And yea I don't care. I am so frustrated right now.""
so she was talking being my back. She seemed to have accidently sent it to me.
This doesn't seem right and tomorrow I will see if the store boss is in and bring it up to her. I don't care if I get fired I just.. f-ck man...
look I am very sorry I was told before and f-cked up using it at work but what the h-ll? None of this seems right. I notice too I'm always left out a bit in the group chats, and when I said I was sick on thanksgiving and sh-t no one cared. Petty of me but.. come on.
I feel like its one coworker who is..talking. She told me the breader looks like sh-t after cleaning it, yet, last time she cleaned it, it looked like sh-t. I'm going to look for a new job in the mean time in case something happens because I cannot afford to lose a job and be stuck on rent. ugh...
how can I handle this?
submitted by SkullsandBeauty to careerguidance [link] [comments]


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